How To Give Up Alcohol

Give Up Alcohol Melbourne

Once consumed, is the alcohol enters the bloodstream and is distributed throughout the body. Although most often associated with damage to the excessive alcohol intake of liver, can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular, endocrine and immune system-systems. Alcohol has erroneously as a stimulant because its first impact in some people include feelings of euphoria and decreased inhibitions. Alcohol is properly classified as a sedative, because it induces drowsiness and sedation later. . )). If you drink alcohol stopped, will experience withdrawal symptoms, which can include anxiety, sweating, hallucinations and convulsions shaking. The site of action of these effects is the brain. To “ If ” answer to each of these questions can mean that there is a problem with alcohol, then more than one “ Yes ” reaction is very indicative of a problem. Even if a person is ” not “ in all four subjects, yet there may be alcohol problems. Close when the screening process, there is a problem of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence, then this person has yet to be evaluated by a qualified doctor. The criteria to be developed by health care providers to diagnose alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Before the 1970s were subjective and clinical experiences for the diagnosis of alcoholism. More recently, are diagnostic criteria for research and data. Researchers and clinicians in the United States on diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association released today confidence. Endorphins are hormones that are suspicious, requiring alcohol involved. Naltrexone blocks the receptors of endorphins and reduces the desire for alcohol. Although clinical trials of Naltrexone were promising, the drug should be taken regularly to be effective. This medication must be used in conjunction with psychosocial therapies. Research is underway to identify the drugs, alone or in combination with other drugs used for the treatment of alcoholism. Each has launched (or “ ” self) therapies are traditionally the backbone of alcohol recovery. The first such program of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), describes itself as a global community of “ men and women, the other helps to stay sober. ” there are formal treatment programs, as the standard behavioral psychology, prevention and family intervention, which may help some patients relapse. If the hamsters, the useful life of about three years, received prolonged exposure to high containers, which could bring more efficiency to return to normal, but his heart mitochondria ’ t beat as they do normally. This study suggests that the body ’ a adaptive response to alcohol consumption in the long term is not able to completely restore normal cardiac function. Drink of hypertension (high blood pressure), strongly connected more than four cups a day may be another result of long-term alcohol consumption. Several mechanisms for the relationship between consumption and hypertension have been proposed to explain. A proposal mechanisim includes changes in the levels of various hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate the functioning of the heart. It has been proposed another method of indicating that alcohol impairs the ability of the muscles in the arteries contracts. Alcohol-induced hypertension is not permanent, and under heavy drinkers, which disappears at the end of two or three weeks after drinking. The long-term presence of alcohol-induced hypertension in alcoholics may play a role in the association between alcohol consumption and risk of stroke. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in Western societies, or 25 percent of all deaths. Despite the clear link between alcohol consumption and moderate drinking heart disease that correlates with a lower risk of coronary heart disease. Interviews with children aged 8 and 9, reveals life in New Zealand, that alcohol in their environmental problems were a third of them deliberately. Much of the research on the effects of alcohol in people used animals. Scientists use animals, whether the use of people is impractical or unethical. For example, when scientists viewed the fetal alcohol syndrome, which can give alcohol to pregnant women, but alcohol, gives pregnant animals. Although it is a chronic disease, alcoholism can be treated successfully. Every successful physiological treatment for alcoholism must also have a psychological component. Relapse in the history of alcohol is similar to other chronic diseases such as heart disease or diabetes. Therefore, the treatment is a success, no definitive cure. Continued research to develop drug therapies and psycho-social (behavioural) to alcoholism. It is believed that more than 28 million children of alcoholic parents in the United States, with more than 11 million of them under 18 years. Biological (genetic) and psychosocial factors to combine with environmental factors such as increased availability of alcohol, the risk to the development of drinking problems. The perception of the danger, taking risks, acting impulsively and feeling-finding behaviors are influenced by the consumption of alcohol. In men, taking more ahead of high-risk behaviors. The liver is the main place where alcohol is metabolized. Liver cells contain DHA, which converts alcohol into acetaldehyde. At the same time, other enzymes convert acetaldehyde into carbon dioxide and water, which are excreted by the body. Exceeds the rate of alcohol metabolized alcohol consumption may be returning to the blood alcohol concentration and intoxicated individuals. The effects of absorption, distribution and elimination are combined with a characteristic curve of alcohol in the blood (Figure 8). When a person drinks alcohol, greatly increases the tray during the phase of maximum absorption, which depends on the amount consumed. In general, the highest concentration of alcohol reaches 45 – 90 minutes after the Cup. Drops tray lid then spread quickly to alcohol in the tissues of the body in the deployment phase. Finally, the BAC falls more slowly during the elimination phase. Alcohol is removed from the body through normal routes of excretion in this process. In times of high BAC removed, about 5% of alcohol in the breath and another 5% in urine, with a negligible amount of sweat and feces excreted. The effects of short-term behavior of alcohol continue to typical response characteristic doses of a drug; That is, more of the dose, the effect. Alcohol also disrupts the brain's ability to ’ information processing. Another important aspect of the process is the ability of the driver to divide his attention. A pilot must keep the car in the right lane and at the same time attention to the local environment. Alcohol often leads to people, prefer an activity than others. Alcohol impaired impaired driver is usually more attention to control of their car, as they do with their local environment. Here are some statistics on alcohol and behavior compiled by the United States Department of transportation. It's easier, physical effects of alcohol like behavior, especially including containers between 0.06 – 0.20 estimates. personality affects the Behavioral responses. Loss of inhibition in combination with additional glass leads some individuals becoming more left, while others will be deleted. Still, others are angry and aggressive. No, the expression of anger and aggressiveness lead that surprised inappropriate abuse and violence (cf, If alcoholic individuals with alcohol can cause cravings for alcohol, loss of short-term memory, motor function and perceptual disturbance reduced cognitive and emotional abilities and personality changes. Children living in a home with an alcoholic parent: parents without alcohol, alcoholism, detained are four times more likely than children. Factors such as the lack of support from parents, monitoring and communication also contribute to alcohol abuse among young people. Children who are rejected or victims of violence, are much more likely to develop problems with alcohol. Many young people who develop positive expectations about alcohol consumption, the factor in your decision, if you start to drink. These parameters are influenced by positive representations of alcohol use in film, television and advertising. Our society has an ambivalent attitude towards alcohol, sometimes limit and on other occasions to promote. Television program in the United States as advertising for beer and wine, but not alcohol distilled water. This voluntary ban on television advertising of alcohol might be at the end. The positive news on the consumption of alcohol to escape the notice of our youngest citizens. A recent study has 50 children's animated film ’ are examples of tobacco and alcohol, which represented the 25 films of alcohol (50 percent). On the other hand, are two characters who drink alcohol as a probable “ good ” “ evil ” as characters are. or take the excessive consumption of alcohol, which is often defined as five drinks or more in a row. This consumer behaviour make young people more at risk for developing alcoholism later in life. Search results show that may require different criteria to distinguish between alcohol abuse and alcoholism among young people than adults. Studies with animal models have shown that responses to teenage brain development other than alcohol, that the adult brain. The effects of alcohol on an individual vary according to the individual ’ of weight, exposure to drugs, nutritional status, gender and other factors. Large amounts of alcohol is considered to be risky during pregnancy. ). It is assumed that the FAS is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in children. Although it is not fully understood, alcohol the mother hears the severity of signs and symptoms associated with the quantity, frequency and time during pregnancy. Kids who abuse alcohol may differ in alcoholism, develop, although the criteria for the diagnosis of adult diagnosis. These results demonstrate once again, as a unique partner of alcohol, but not enough to answer, aggressive behavior. The relationship between alcohol and violence is complex. Alcohol seems to affect aggressive behavior in some individuals, but not the other and in certain social or cultural situations. Our knowledge about the causes of violence are limited, the research suggests that acts of violence can be treated through behavioral therapies. Studies show that successful alcoholism treatment should reduce the added benefit of violent behavior. Figure 6. The effect of food on blood alcohol content. The graph shows the tray after a person after an overnight fast (continuous line) drink alcohol and after breakfast (dotted) immediately. Alcohol is because of its legal status and the prevalence in society, as well as other medications to see. The term medication is not always easy to define. In a medical context, a drug can be defined as any substance that is used in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment or cure of disease. In the context of drug abuse can be described as any substance that alters the consciousness and possibly to do usually. Alcohol as a drug of abuse related is classified according to these definitions. Textbooks for high school students are generally little, if any, scientific information on the effects of alcohol on animal cell function and behaviour. If ever the topic is covered, it is probably some sort of health, or maybe a ’ driver-educational-class s. much of what students know or know that comes from family, peers, media and personal experiences. Very often this error information, half-truths and wisdom. Students must understand changes in your mind and body, if you drink alcohol. They must also understand that if they want to drink, there are both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic), even with a moderate consumption of detection. In this supplement to the program, understand alcohol materials: research on biology and behavior, at least should help correct the following errors. The moderate consumption of alcohol can also have consequences in the short and long term. Restless children and distracted easily at the age of 3 years are two times more often than their counterparts in the faces of 21 years as alcohol by diagnosis. Alcohol about two-thirds of American adults at least once a year. Most people to consume in moderation, but some 13.8 million Americans have alcohol-related problems or substance abuse. This process of metabolism and excretion is called elimination. The concentration of alcohol in the breath and urine reflects the concentration of alcohol in the blood. This means that the alcohol in the breath can identify, measure and used to calculate a person's concentration ’ blood alcohol (BAC). The calculation of BAC is the standard way to determine the extent of a person's impairment ’. alcohol tray, well expressed as a percentage, as a unit of measure, is actually a weight per volume: g ethanol 100 milliliters per deciliter of blood. The calculation of each ’ s BAC depends in part on the amount of water in the body. Men, for example, an average of 58% of their total body weight as water, while women on average 49%. Blood alcohol curve drink the duration of many factors, including variables such as the size, sex, body build, quantity and type of drinks, taking, affecting fatigue and the presence and type of food. These variables are also important determinants of the time and peak blood alcohol curve. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy is essential to the development of FAS and FAE. The experimental animal, to explore the relationship between alcohol and researchers able to FAS, not only the time and dose is alcohol during pregnancy, but also genetic background and the environment of the control animals. A high rate of alcohol can destroy nerve cells in the developing brain of rat. The brain is the source of all human behaviors, it is not surprising that brought you the exposure to changes in the behavior of alcohol. As described. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol liver damage are complex and not well understood. We know that when the liver cells metabolize alcohol, use of oxygen. By-products are called this very reactive compounds metabolism, free radicals. Free radicals react with proteins, lipids and DNA of the cell or cell death scratch. In addition, alcoholic beverages of the lining of the stomach to endotoxin caused bacteria release (a component of the bacterial outer membrane). Activates certain cells in endotoxin liver metabolic State, which produces more free radical and led to cell damage. The digestive system. Excessive alcohol consumption has shown that chronic inflammation of the esophagus, causes, can lead to esophageal cancer. During swallowing, esophagus contracts and relaxed as your stomach can get help. By inhibiting this contraction, alcohol can make stomach acid juices in the lower esophagus. The presence of gastric acid into the esophagus can cause inflammation, from mild to severe. The cells, the lining of the esophagus to move in the direction of esophageal cancer can cause prolonged exposure to gastric acid. Excessive consumption of alcohol was also cancers elsewhere in the body, including the mouth, throat, breast, colon and rectum and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Although alcohol is not specifically associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer, it can be accessed in gastritis (inflammation of the stomach). It was established as a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori) gastritis and ulcers resulting; heavy drinkers have higher rates of and gastritis of h. pylori infection as a quieter drinker. Don't let gastritis in alcoholics, gulp, but can be reduced by treatment with antibiotics, more alcohol, gastritis causes bacterial infections. However, the excessive consumption of alcohol can increase the sensitivity of gastritis. Currently, scientists are studying whether the highest rate of alcohol drinkers or gastritis of h. pylori is contagious. Can be activated also paved the way for the reward of a negative experience. Animal experiments have shown that the concentration in the brain, a neurotransmitter that increases so strongly associated with abstinence from alcohol. The animal is motivated, trying to avoid the reward (alcohol) for the pain of withdrawal. This process promotes the human cycle of alcoholism: people are motivated to increase the consumption of alcohol, keep the discomfort of withdrawal to avoid, even though it seems that this behavior. The immune system. Also sets that people who drink heavily are infectious diseases rather than people who drink moderately. For example, several studies have shown that alcohol and drug addicts are infected by bacteria, tuberculosis due to a rate, which is 15 to 200 times greater than the Nonabusers. Us, that alcohol abuse can today, alter the distribution and function of immune cells called lymphocytes interfere with molecules called cytokines, which helps coordinate the activities of the cell. Alcohol can increase cytokine production in the cells of the liver, causing scarring and altered blood associated with cirrhosis of the liver. At the same time, anomalous concentrations of cytokines may lead to a poorly regulated immune system which can fight infections less. Alcohol ’ s can be exacerbated even further the effects on the immune system. If the immune system on an equal footing with alcohol where exactly the same what differentiates non-self had caused damage, attacks the immune system. This can cause, or even worse, Alkoholinduzierte organ damage such as liver disease from alcohol. Unfortunately the children with fetal alcohol syndrome are born (FAS) to deal with the effects of alcohol on the body's immune system for life (cfr. On the other hand, alcohol is also known as drug or alcohol dependency syndrome of alcohol, a chronic disease that requires a strong addiction to alcohol, inability to stop drinking, the appearance of withdrawal symptoms and tolerance (see table 2). Alcoholism tends to be progressive. Alcohol abuse is not equivalent to alcoholism. A person may use an excessive amount of alcohol, but the non-alcoholic ’ individual experience intense desire for s or severe withdrawal symptoms (physical dependence) when to stop drinking. Sensitivity to factors contributing to alcohol that are genetic, environmental and psychosocial. While endangered species, whereby not all people who abuse genetic susceptibility factors, alcoholics, alcohol environments instead of this beverage to promote the development of alcoholism. Definitions of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, which applies described above do not directly to young people drinking. As mentioned above, don't drink alcohol underage youth are considered alcohol abuse. Giovani who abuse alcohol often drink normally. Tolerance. Fault tolerance refers to the ability to adapt ’ to chronic alcohol consumption. Prolonged use, the lower brain is sensitive to alcohol. This means that the upper containers are required to produce intoxication. Alcoholics and alcoholics can show tolerance. Marcus who read unconscious Nonabusers may seem almost sober alcoholics and drug addicts. Chronic consumption of alcohol leads to elevated levels of liver enzymes to metabolize alcohol. This allows for the removal of the liver alcohol more effectively; Therefore, the individual should consume more alcohol to get a true blood alcohol. There is a behavioral component to tolerance. Exposed to chronic and excessive alcohol exposure, is working on a person under the influence of alcohol. Functional tolerance can reduce the damage that would normally accompany the execution of a transaction. People can go successfully after drinking, because you know that line and nothing happens unexpected. However, when they encounter a detour or another car, which suddenly darts in front of the same risk of an accident than a driver with a BAC himself, who does not know the way. The amount of alcohol consumed an experience person tolerance can severely damage the body physiological systems ’, despite their apparent normalcy. In addition to other regions on chromosome 4 protect an individual against alcoholism. This region is near the location of the ADH enzyme gene (see “.) An experimental approach to the study of the relationship of alcohol to the aggressive behavior is a person trying to administer an electric shock to an invisible opponent ” “ in a competitive learning activities with and reaction time. Unknown, test, a computer person plays the role of the opponent. The task is performed by the test object during fasting and after consumption of alcohol. These studies show that the Administration subject Download stronger power with increasing alcohol consumption. These same studies also show that themes of aggressive behavior does not appear unless you unless they feel threatened or provoked. About 43 percent of the adult population, alcoholism in the family, the prevalence of alcoholism in the United States is that they were exposed 76 million Americans. People varies greatly in its ability to absorb and eliminate alcohol. This section describes some of the most important factors influencing the rate at which alcohol is absorbed into the blood. Food. Alcohol is faster when the stomach is empty; fast passage of the alcohol in the small intestine, where the absorption is the most effective possible fast. This means that the food of apparent sobering effect before alcohol due to delays in an empty stomach. A recent study showed that people, after a shot of food, including alcohol, protein almost three times more slowly than if they drank alcohol on an empty stomach absorbs alcohol fats and carbohydrates (see Figure 6). The rate of absorption of alcohol is based not only on the presence or absence of food, but also in the type of food available too. Foods with high fat content, require more time to exit the stomach; Then, the food allows the absorption of alcohol for a long time that fatty foods are held. It is true that many effects alcohol consumption behaviors, such as memory and motor disorders know the function. However, we do not know how to create actions involving alcohol. The continuous research for understanding how alcohol affects all cells of the body and affects their work. New scientific approaches are helping scientists better understand the behavior of alcohol and biological effects. One of the approaches used knockout mice (mice with a particular gene are deleted), to identify, preparing someone to alcoholism genes. New imaging techniques allow scientists to see ’ alcohol effects in the living brain. Also it will help you to several sociological studies to better understand the social consequences of alcohol consumption. The results of these studies, “ from cell to society of ” provide essential knowledge, which is a condition sine qua non for effective ways to prevent and treat this disease. ]. Table 4 Shows high levels of alcohol in the blood that lead to personality changes, as well as the loss of control over bodily functions. At the beginning and almost universally the effect of alcohol on the personality is the loss of inhibition. Other demonstrated effects of reducing containers (0.05 0.01 –) include a feeling of well-being and decreases alertness. I also thought, judgment, coordination and concentration in most people can affect these values bin. The liver. Excessive alcohol consumption can be almost all organs in the body damage. However, it is more often associated with liver damage. The liver is particularly sensitive to the effects of alcohol, because the blood receives directly from the intestine, the important site of alcohol absorption. The liver is the primary site of metabolism of alcohol, but a range of animal by-products, toxic to the liver itself this metabolism. The accumulation of these products leads to damage of the liver induced by alcohol, which may take the form of inflammation (alcoholic hepatitis) or scarring of the liver (fibrosis or cirrhosis). Often, there are two types of damage within the same person. Alcohol abuse is the leading cause of death, liver transplant in the United States. It is estimated that more than 2 million people suffer from a form of alcoholic liver disease. Of course, there are factors that influence the behavior of the cardiomyopathy. The average life expectancy that will happen if, in a given situation a person drink provided. Studies have shown that drinkers are waiting for, feeling and behavior in a certain way in the drink. Expectations for the beverage can start at an early age, before you start drinking. Reinforcement. The properties of alcohol, which causes can continue to drink the chronic abuse of alcohol, the private man is handsome and reduces those fear and alcoholism. This is known as reinforcement. Scientists are studying the brain chemistry involved in the framework. Research findings indicate that certain areas such as the hypothalamus (hunger, thirst and emotions involved is), the brain and the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex plays a role in strengthening. Specific neurotransmitters are also involved in ’ effects of alcohol increased. Consumption is the container of parts water, which mainly affects the organs are distributed alcohol with a high water content. One of them is the liver, the organ that metabolizes alcohol. Another reason is the brain, the body that is the seat of cognition and behavior. The liver is the primary site of metabolism of alcohol, but a range of animal by-products, toxic to the liver itself this metabolism. This time View of alcohol destroy nerve in rat brain growth jet in humans corresponds to sinaptogenesi, called, when brain cells form most of their connections. In humans lasts from about the sixth month of pregnancy with a baby sinaptogenesi ’ the second anniversary. Rats occurs this time for a brief period, once born the puppy. Scientists have found the newborn puppies to a blood alcohol level-0.20 (about twice the ALC, defined as legally in a State of intoxication in humans). This high BAC was maintained for four hours or more. A single exposure of four hours, was quite causes almost 30 times higher than normal mortality rate of brain cells. This belief can cause to your drink to increase “ cm ” other social factors that the increased consumption of alcohol, drinking in groups and use their own promotion. Although the proportion of accident killed mapping Cup decreases, the problem is still serious, asking 15,000 lives a year in the United States. All States have laws that require the limits of space shuttle pilot. Already been average 0.08 as its highest level (i.e., there are no signs of poisoning are required), while the other half is currently limited to 0.10 alcohol is a more serious risk for young drivers. You have little experience of driving and alcohol to show greater accident. Recognizing this fact, all States have laws that prevent, in particular of minors to drink and drive. Among these 21 are minimum alcohol laws and zero tolerance for underage drinking and driving. In addition, some States have adopted lead systems licenses (GDL). These systems usually have a three step process, where 16-and it will take 17 years before rider monitored at all times by a former pilot. The second stage allows you to drive, while during the day without supervision. The third step leads to some limitations. Recent reports indicate that GDL programs have succeeded. Stops working with the old driver 16 years in Michigan, 25% and 27% in North Carolina after the implementation of GDL programs is back. ). The excessive consumption of alcohol can also cause some severe emotional disorders experience and also trigger severe depression. – 0.29 0.21 tray, loss of muscle control translates most of individuals experiencing stupor and disturbed sensations. Why 0.30 trays affect breathing and heartbeat are all people who have experienced this tray to a risk of loss of consciousness, coma and even death. Although behavioral effects of alcohol are unpredictable and from one individual to another can vary, a number of factors that we know that alcohol affects to ’ 's effect on behavior. An important factor that influences the personality and genetic vulnerability to alcohol abuse is (cfr. While 45 percent of the cost of alcohol abuse by the authors themselves and their families, down to 38 per cent in the Government (in the form of lost tax revenues or reduced). Additional costs for the Nonabusers include, but are not limited to the economic costs of the criminal justice system, higher insurance premiums, as well as the social costs of alcohol-related crime and trauma. Some examples of the social costs of alcohol abuse and alcoholism treated in more detail later. Some skills are more affected than others for a given cube. The brain must brief focal movement on objects for your eyes and follow the control. Low to moderate container (0.03 0.05 –) can interfere with the ability to track objects. Address, of the employee by eye movements and reactions of the eye. Studies show that people have significant difficulties that a car with handling of trays begins with ” 0.02). This is particularly interesting, because some alleles or gene variants DHA proven risk of alcoholism among China and Japan population to decrease. People with the allele ADH2 and ADH3 produce enzymes that metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde with high frequency. Toxic acetaldehyde accumulation can cause Facial redness, increased heart rate and a burning sensation in the stomach. These negative effects of alcohol consumption are responsible for the low rate of alcoholism in humans with these genotypes. Other factors that are important for the calculation of the tray are the amount of alcohol consumed and burning or metabolizes alcohol quickly. In practice, the only factor that influences the calculation of BAC with great accuracy is likely to be known is the amount of alcohol consumed. Burn and total body water are influenced by several factors. Total body water is a function not only of a person's sex ’, but also by their weight and their type. (Burned), alcohol metabolism varies depending on people. Heavy drinkers, for example, the rate of alcohol metabolism may due to high concentrations of normal alcohol metabolizing enzymes increased. Higher levels of these enzymes increase the burning. Moderate drinkers average metabolism leads to a decrease in the tray to 0.017 per hour, while a drinker, a decrease of 0, 020. at the moment. 0.040 per hour metabolic rate above, below 0.010. The alcohol content of alcoholic beverages, ethanol is known. Ethanol is a small molecule to a column (C) 2-carbon with hydrogen connected 5 (H) and a hydroxyl group (OH at one end). The Terminal hydroxyl group is characteristic of alcohol (Figure 5). Ethanol is a natural conversion process called fermentation, where the yeast, a fungus that turns a form of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Natural fruit sugar, berries and malted cereals found they are fermented to make beer and wine. However, liqueurs, produced by the process of distillation. An important part of the social costs of alcohol consumption (e.g. accidents, falls, violence) is due to the acute effects. Drinkers and drug addicts and alcoholics, may suffer from the acute effects of alcohol-related injuries. Although the acute effects of alcohol take some time, long-term chronic effects may develop and maintain. Giovani and adults that drinking too much alcohol can cause chronic changes in your brain. A recent study shows that consumption of alcohol abuse among young people can alter the functioning of the brain. The association between alcohol consumption and risky behaviors apply to sexual behavior, such as. The consequences of such conduct, including rape, the transmission of diseases, unwanted pregnancies and birth defects. Participate in an association between alcohol consumption and research on the sexual behavior of young people. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism affects not only the individual families, but everyone. Children are aware of alcohol at an early age. In five or six years, most children recognize the smell only alcohol. This supplement should students the opportunity, on the underlying science of the effects of alcohol on human biology and lessons learn behaviors through a series of classroom-based research to present. Children are natural scientists. Have a curiosity about the world that surrounds them and ourselves as individuals. Because they have little life experience, many young people tend to see as nearly invincible. Therefore, when adults attention participation behaviors such as alcohol consumption, a don ’ t listen. They believe that these warnings are not ’ t be applied only for those less cultivated by you. This supplement is the ability to build their understanding of alcohol and the risks incurred by students. Besides the lessons, which support students to develop their critical thinking skills based on research. With greater understanding and abilities, which are better informed decisions about real life situations to make alcohol. In addition, the 16% reported binge drinking eighth grade in the two weeks before the interview. The impact of adolescent alcohol use include problems of health-and safety-related incidents, including cars, violence and suicide. Alcohol abuse among young people can lead to problems in connection with the investigation of impulsiveness and sensation. Alcoholism involves more than drinking too much. He is known to be a complex disease that includes a variety of factors, such as social and environmental components, and behavioral genetics. Physical dependence alcohol beverage defines alcoholism as a disease, which was diagnosed or alcohol abuse (see the TI should each with a specific function indicates a multitude of neurotransmitters in the brain.) The Union of the neurotransmitter to the receiver is — its specific receptor, as a key corresponds to a neurotransmitter, which means that it conforms to the corresponding lock. Once a neurotransmitter, sent his message is broken by an enzyme or absorbed by neurons themselves, which publishes. For many years, scientists have found that alcohol changes the function of the nerve cells in the brain interact with the fat molecules in cell membranes. Recently, it has alcohol with proteins present in cell membranes, especially these neurotransmission interacts. Alcohol affects the brain as drugs ’ 's reward in the limbic system (see “.) Most people without an alcohol problem. Without, however, about 17% of regular drinkers misuse or depend on. Regular drinkers are defined as those who consumed 12 drinks or in the course of the year. Individual ’ 's alcoholism susceptibility is influenced by several factors. Scientists believe that, in addition to other factors, there is a gene for alcoholism, because children or relatives of alcoholics are much more risk of developing the disease. It is important to stress that the members of the same family genes and a partnership to share the environment. Against the tide to distinguish the effects of nature, have twin and adoption studies of scientists. Identical twins have the same set of genes. The twins, as brothers of the component on average only half of their shared genes though. Therefore, these two types of twins have environmental influences to a similar level, but are different amounts of genetic information. If a characteristic View greater similarity between identical twins double then genes contribute to this function. Children who are adopted at an early age allows you to separate genetics ambient effects. The hypothesis that it is common for a characteristic between biological and adoptive parents far descendants due to genetics. On the contrary, the similarities between adoptive parents and their adopted children reflect shared environmental influences. Twin and adoption studies show that there is a strong genetic influence on alcoholism. It is to be noted, however, that many people genetically predisposed, an alcoholic who aren't. Genetic influence speaks to a person's risk, not ’ their destination. The environment, including the social context of the individual, is a very important factor. The individual must engage in the behavior of drinking before that predisposition gene can develop forms of alcoholism. Genetic influence on alcoholism is described as Polygenic, c.IE., there are more that gene affects the property. Regions in many scientific studies of the chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 15 and 16), has determined that it can predispose a person to alcoholism. Although it is difficult to translate these results from rats to humans has led to uncertainty that the authors advice to pregnant women to avoid alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A long time has been observed between consumption and violent or aggressive behavior of alcohol-related. Clearly, violence occurs in the absence of alcohol and alcohol alone is not sufficient to lead to violence. However, many studies have found that alcohol is involved in about half of the perpetrators of violence and their victims. This relationship takes place between cultures through and for the different types of violence. In the United States, alcohol is a major factor. Figure 1 alcohol showed societies for millennia, as this presentation of the ancient Greek God of wine, Bacchus and viticulture. A survey found that among a group of adults who came to the emergency room for alcohol-related injuries, three quarters that do not use approved safety belts. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are social problems that affect many more victims than the individual drinker. Alcohol abuse is a critical factor in many other social problems, including marital violence, traffic accidents, violence and child neglect. In addition to staff costs, alcoholism also has serious economic consequences for the country's loss of productivity, medical care and the associated costs for the management of the criminal justice system. Although alcohol's effects ’ were delayed due to the presence of food in the stomach, they are not avoided. People may drink too much alcohol in a short time, a belief that is not ’ t with equal effect. Only after the delay in absorption and elimination of alcohol is drunk to get them interested, sensitive perhaps with disastrous consequences. Body weight and complexion. More body weight has a greater volume in which alcohol can be deployed. This means that a larger person and a certain amount of alcohol will be less affected, as would a small person. Alcohol is more soluble in water than fat. This means that the fabric, keeping plenty of water, such as muscles, more alcohol, richer in fatty tissues. A thin man with greater muscle mass (and less fat) provides a greater volume of alcohol in the spread, compared to someone who weighs the same, but has a higher percentage of body fat. In summary, we can say if you compare two people, with the amount of body fat, differ, but the effect of the alcohol will be different in size. The person with the fat, low body fat level will be less than the person with great success. Between the sexes. Women need a tiny body and a higher percentage of body fat than men on average. These properties must be said that, on average, women have a low percentage of women in total, to distribute the water body of alcohol. Women also have a low activity of metabolizing alcohol enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the stomach; more registered alcohol reaches the blood. This causes after consuming the same amount of alcohol than women in General magazines more than men and are more susceptible to alcohol ’ effects. Women are also more vulnerable than men and alcoholic liver disease, injury to the heart muscle and brain damage. For many years, drug treatment includes the use of disulfiram (Antabuse), which affects alcohol metabolism in the liver. A person who drinks alcohol while taking Disulfiram is disease and severe discomfort of experience or even in extreme cases, death. The expectation of the disease because the consumption of alcohol. Often alcoholics do not take the medication or take, but will continue to take despite the consequences. In addition, disulfiram, only the effects but not the causes of the disease treated. This reduces its effectiveness, except when used in combination with other behavioral therapies. Drinking behaviors associated with can sometimes be accidental. For example, mixing alcohol with certain medications can cause serious or even fatal consequences. Is prescription or OTC medications should read labels carefully and consult your pharmacist, doctor or other adverse health professionals know drugs mixed with alcohol. Ultimately, each individual must decide whether or not to use alcohol. Students understand the changes caused by the alcohol in your body and can make informed decisions about how these changes affect their health and their behavior. This assumes that the first of the four objectives of understanding. Dr. Enoch Gordis, former Director of the National Institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism (NIAAA), wrote: “ although the alcohol is a drug ’ ‘ for young people, because their use is often the use of other illegal substances, preceded this terminology is counterproductive; Young drink requires particular attention, not because it leads to, but because of the magnitude of the human and economic impact of alcohol use in this vulnerable population. ”. ). Alcoholic people, the brain is affected by alcohol and encourages the use continues through positive and negative reinforcement. Serve mainly as physics-heavy to stop drinking as a biological force, you can keep the withdrawal symptoms of Trinkverhalten. The mechanism, alcohol contributes to aggressive behavior is not fully understood. Alcohol can interfere with the brain's behaviour mechanisms ’ think and relaxed. Who is intoxicated can bad social signals, Over-reacting to situations, to react and to accurately predict the consequences of their actions. In addition, consumption of alcohol can lead to greater vulnerability to potential victims. Drunks are usually less able to defend the people against the sobriety of violent aggression. A survey of 8 and 10 students, the United States has shown that alcohol and significantly correlated with victimization and risky behaviour. This association was stronger than class eight men. ). Results of FAS drinking pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can cause normal fetal immune system leads to higher frequencies of infection and an increased risk of organ damage, among other negative effects, interrupting life. The endocrine system. Alcohol consumption in the long run may also interfere with the endocrine system and disrupt the balance of hormones, insulin and glucagon, glucose in the blood of the rules. Alcohol can be changed with the release of testosterone, growth hormone and reproductive hormones. Alcohol-induced changes in hormone levels are associated with sexual dysfunctions in men and women. Alcoholics are also at an increased risk of osteoporosis. The failure of some hormones like parathyroid hormone, vitamin D – in hormone and calcitonin, can lead to a lack of calcium. These students consistently overestimate the amount of alcohol consumed by his teammates. This trend promotes heavy drinking habits. These studies show that students are less vulnerable to the high consumption of alcohol after the FSS as a fall/winter semester. Without a doubt, have some negative effects of alcohol abuse and to moderate his enthusiasm for the drink. In addition, young people are sensitive to modeling, I admire people like athletes, actors and musicians for their consumer behavior. ). Genetic influences work on the individual and the population of birds. For example, some genetic variations that exist in Chinese and Japanese populations lead to increased sensitivity to alcohol's effects, ’, which in turn leads to susceptibility to alcoholism. These genetic variations have an individual female victim of washing, an increased heart rate and a burning sensation in the stomach of alcohol consumption. These negative consequences usually better prevention of alcohol. In other populations, the genetic variations lead to increased susceptibility to alcoholism. In other populations, genetic, obviously does not affect an individual's ’ drinking behavior. It is important to note that an individual feels cannot control their genetic composition, but if you do, can anyone help, if drinking alcohol would be risky. However, these observations give carte blanche to alcohol. In light of these results, it is important to weigh the benefits against the risks. Although moderate consumption with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease is connected, there is an increased risk of accidents. Five drinks or more per day leads to an increased risk of attack of apoplexy and cancer. In addition, pregnant women, people with certain medications and who must drink with a diagnosis of alcoholism or other medical problems that fail completely. Another consequence of the revocation is delirium tremens (sometimes called DTs). Delirium tremens is characterized by hallucinations and severe shaking. DTs can begin arrested a few days after consumption of alcohol and can last a week or more. The mechanisms behind the tolerance and physical dependence include relations between the membranes of nerve cells, neurotransmitters and their receptors and the way of reward. All these are areas of active research. Due to some FAS affected populations disproportionately, it is important that researchers, physicians and educators in these population groups to obtain knowledge and treatments for this serious disease be involved. Other children of an inestimable number each year were exposed to alcohol in the womb but not yet born full syndrome. The condition is called alcohol effects (FAE). See one or more associated congenital malformations, exposure to alcohol. This may be neurological or physical. When consumed a drink containing alcohol, alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the blood by diffusion and is transported to the tissues and in parts of the body that contains the water in the distribution process. Around 20% of the alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and 80% is absorbed by the upper part of the small intestine. Giovani alcohol use data show that the earlier a single drink began to develop risk alcohol consumption more problems in the future. Start drinking 15 years ago are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who begin their lives during drinking under 21 years. Noise. The physiological and behavioural problems associated with changing the poisoning effects of alcohol in different parts of the brain. For example, the loss of coordination can be Drugged people observed the effects of alcohol in one part of the brain called the cerebellum that is to control the movement (see Figure 11). Alcohol-induced deprivation can cause a weakening of the hippocampus, a part of the brain of this assistance to store new memories. Drink may be excess in enough death of oppression, the main activity of the brainstem controls breathing and circulation. Alcohol is the most used and abused drug among young people. A national survey reported that one of the alcohol consumed four grade students last month and 18 percent of eighth-graders have been drunk at least once in the past year. When young, 17 percent said they are less likely to use condoms when having sex later. Alcohol consumption is correlated with an increased risk of forced sexual activity. In a study of Massachusetts, young people have become something is involved the 44 percent if he drank during sexual intercourse. Alcoholism, there is no known cure. However, as for other chronic diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease, alcoholism can be controlled effectively with or without pharmacological treatments with behavioral therapies. Be effective for these treatments, the patient must, however, be significant and lasting changes ready for life. Those who have been treated for alcoholism often meet one or more episodes of relapse. An important aspect of behavioral therapy aims to help patients deal with these consequences and encourage efforts to keep sober. Metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down to extract energy from food. On alcohol, the metabolism is the conversion of acetaldehyde into ethanol and other products. The liver is the primary site of metabolism of alcohol. Only a fraction (less than 10 per cent) of alcohol consumed is not metabolized and excreted from the body in urine, perspiration and breathing. Pregnant women who drink to put their unborn children to alcohol through the placenta. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), characterized by a variety of development issues, some of which can be serious, which can lead to exposure (see table 6, below, and.) Cardio vascular system. In high concentrations, alcohol can affect the heart's pumping action. The effect can be acute or chronic. Alcohol exerts its effects through various mechanisms, including the sodium-potassium (which is necessary to move an electrical impulse through the heart) stop and alter the heart ’ answer to certain hormones. Alcohol of short-term effects interrupted electrical events to control the contraction of heart muscle and alter the rhythm of the beat. These effects are considered the main reasons for the sudden death in alcoholics. Excessive use of alcohol can cause long-term, to interfere with the parts of the heart cell, the action of energy production called mitochondria. Studies on alcohol, fed hamsters show after 14 weeks the BACs high ’, the heart loses its ability to beat properly. This effect was less than normal for the mitochondria energy-related tax. Is the discussion of alcohol, it is crucial that begin with a good understanding of the terms. For the purposes of this module, defined alcohol consumption by adults as consumption of alcohol, for religious or social purposes without proof of alcohol abuse or alcoholism (see tables 1 and 2). Alcohol abuse is defined as any use of alcohol, despite legal development, social or health problems. It is important to emphasize that abuse any alcohol consumption by underage youth alcohol. Scientists are trying to determine if protect comes alcohol or the lifestyle of moderate drinkers. For example, according to a series of studies of average levels of drinking wine, produced the best protection against coronary heart disease. The reason for this is unclear. Wine drinkers are also connected at the head of healthy lifestyles who drink, who prefer beer or spirits. This protective effect of moderate alcohol must drink against his accident increased risk should be evaluated. These benefits are also higher due to increased drinking trapped other types of risk of illness and injury. Alcohol has been used for centuries in social funds, doctors, cultural and religious. Most Americans believe that alcohol can be used responsibly by adults with social and religious purposes. But you can also use alcohol in excess of the health, social, legal and other problems. Students can be contradictory messages on the spirit of the media, school, friends and their parents. On the one hand, they feel that moderate consumption of alcohol is acceptable and in some cases may be good for health; on the other hand, have been told that alcohol is a drug that requires abstinence until 21 years of age. Aside from the advertising and media show photos often of alcohol as a form of success and a pleasant life. These conflicting messages, combined with misunderstandings and misinformation, non-students help on using judicious decisions about alcohol. Statistics show that many young people begin to consume alcohol at an early age. 1997 marked the 26 percent for the eighth year, 40 per cent of class 10 and 51 percent of alcohol consumption can in 12 prior to the survey. Diagnosis of FAS has been improved significantly through discoveries in the search for alcohol. However, because there is no single laboratory test to identify the FAS, it is difficult to estimate the impact with great precision. This situation makes it difficult, which are studies that show that some doctors are reluctant to make the diagnosis, although there is. Probably they don't know ’ n the child because of the stigma that burdened FAS, and recognize that the disease has limited treatment options. However, early diagnosis and precise and recommendations of these children and their parents/guardians apply for medical, social services and adequate education. Based on a study in Washington State, United States, believes that the minimum rate of FAS in the entire population of 3.1 per 1,000 live births, or 0.31 percent. The physical examination and the extraction of addiction. When alcohol was stopped, withdrawal symptoms are like, as well as physical and mental health, alcohol problems. The biochemical changes associated with the removal of cognitive function, loss of short-term memory and motor disturbances, reduced perceptual and emotional abilities and personality changes. )). Alcohol is inhibition of neurotransmission in contrast sometimes stimulants in this interaction with other systems in the brain and on other occasions. After a sufficient amount of alcohol, many people experience a pleasant mood. This sentiment has led some people to seek repeated alcohol exposure. If the excessive consumption of alcohol, can be confusion, loss of coordination, sedation, coma and even death. Tolerance to its effects and physical dependence can cause finally exposure to alcohol in the long term. The term “ ” grace refers to a decrease in the sensitivity of the brain to alcohol after long-term exposure (see, the human brain has a high water content. Therefore, it is very sensitive to the effects of alcohol consumption. Alcohol causes different behavior because changes affect different areas of the brain. For example, (salary) and also the trunk of the brain (breathing) are all influenced by alcohol the cerebellum (movement), Hippocampus (memory), ventral tegmental area. The concentration of alcohol in the breath and urine reflects the concentration of alcohol in the blood. This means that the alcohol in the breath can identify, measure and used to calculate a person's concentration ’ blood alcohol (BAC). Alcoholism and alcohol abuse have important economic impact in our society. 1998 alcohol abuse and alcoholism cost an estimated $ 185 billion in lost productivity, illness, premature death and health spending. For 1995, these costs are estimated at more than $ 166 billion, and $ 148 billion in 1992. ,,.